Japanese Lesson

What is Japanese Language Proficiency Test ?

The Japanese-Language Proficiency Test (JLPT) under joint organization of the Japan Foundation and Japan Educational Exchanges and Services (previously Association of International Education, Japan) started in 1984 as a test to measure and certify the Japanese-language proficiency of those whose native language is not Japanese. In the first year the JLPT was conducted in 15 countries, and approximately 7,000 examinees took the test. Since then, the JLPT has become the largest Japanese-language test in the world, with approximately 610,000 examinees in 62 countries and areas worldwide in 2011. This success is entirely due to the support and cooperation of all involved.

A quarter century since its inception, the JLPT has been undergoing various changes in recent years. In 2009, the JLPT started to be offered twice a year in July and December, as opposed to only once a year in December previously. The year 2010 saw the introduction of the “new” JLPT, which focuses on communication abilities to meet more diverse student needs and is designed based on analysis of data collected over the years.

Today the JLPT is actively used in every corner of the world. We continue to strive for further penetration and improvement of the JLPT in order to provide a wide range of Japanese-language students in all sorts of learning environments with more and equal opportunities to take the test in coming years.

May 2012

Hiroyasu Ando
President
The Japan Foundation

Masayuki Inoue
President
Japan Educational Exchanges and Services

The JLPT is offered in five levels (N1, N2, N3, N4, N5). In order to measure Japanese-language proficiency as thoroughly as possible, test items are designed for each level.
N4 and N5 measure understanding of basic Japanese that is mainly learned in the classroom. N1 and N2 measure understanding of Japanese used in a broad range of actual everyday scenes. N3 bridges the gap between N4/N5 and N1/N2.

Advantages of JLPT

JLPT certificates offer various advantages, ranging from recognition as academic credit and graduation certification at schools to preferential treatment at companies and acknowledgement of qualification in society.

JLPT certificates offer various advantages, ranging from recognition as academic credit and graduation certification at schools to preferential treatment at companies and acknowledgement of qualification in society.

Advantages in Japan

Earn points for preferential treatment for immigration to Japan

Those who pass JLPT N1 receive 15 points under the government’s “Point-based Preferential Immigration Treatment System for Highly Skilled Foreign Professionals.” Individuals with a total of 70 points or higher receive preferential treatment at immigration.
For more details, please refer to the website of Immigration Bureau of Japan.

One of requirements to take Japan’s national exams for medical practitioners

A JLPT N1 certificate is required for medical practitioners licensed overseas who want to take Japan’s national exams for medical practitioners, and other professions.*
For more details on application requirements for national exams for medical practitioners, please refer to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare website (Japanese).

*Other national exams that require a JLPT N1 certificate as part of application:
Dentist, nurse, pharmacist, public health nurse, midwife, radiology technologist, dental hygienist, dental technician, clinical laboratory technician, physical therapist, occupational therapist, orthoptist, clinical engineer, prosthetist, emergency medical technician, speech therapist, veterinarian

One of requirements to take Japan’s prefectural exams for assistant nurses

A JLPT N1 certificate is required for overseas nursing school graduates who want to take Japan’s assistant nurse exams.
Exams for assistant nurses are administered by each prefecture. For more details, please contact the prefecture of interest.

A test subject is waved on accreditation exam for completion of junior high school level education in Japan

The Japanese-language test is waved for examinees of foreign citizenship who pass JLPT N1 or N2.
For more details, please refer to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology website (Japanese).

One of requirements for Vietnamese nurse/care worker candidates under EPA

A JLPT N3 or higher certificate is required for Vietnamese nurse and care worker candidates who visit Japan as part of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between Japan and Vietnam.
For more details, please refer to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare website (Japanese).

( http://www.jlpt.jp/e/about/merit.html )

How many of you have ever heard of the Japanese word ‘wasei eigo’?

A direct translation into English would be “Japanese-made English”, but put more simply the word refers to English words that, after a little tampering, have been adopted into the modern Japanese lexicon and used on an everyday basis. Despite having their origins in English, wasei eigo words often have quite different meanings to those on which they are based.

Consequently, Japanese visitors to English-speaking countries using terms like “baby car” and “key holder” — words that are thought to be “English” in Japan — are often met with raised eyebrows and blank stares from native English speakers.

So come with us now as we look at the top 20 wasei English words that cause Japanese people trouble when they break them out while abroad.

It perhaps doesn’t help that the majority of these words, when pronounced in “katakana English” and with a Japanese accent, sound even further removed from their English originals, but we’re sure you’ll agree that even in their written form some of them are bound to cause confusion in English-speaking countries. The Japanese pronunciations are written in italics alongside each word.

1.) Salary man, OL (Office Lady) sararii man

During a trip abroad, it is not unusual to be asked about one’s occupation. Many Japanese believe that the word ‘salary man’ is used as an everyday English word referring to men who work in an office. It is also believed that ‘OL’ refers to women working in the same environment. However, while such connotations are true within Japan, in an English-speaking country, the word ‘office worker’ is used regardless of the sex. While ‘salary man’ may feel natural from a Japanese speaker’s perspective, in an English-speaking country the same word defines a male worker who is in receipt of a salary.

2.) Key holder kii horudaa

When visiting a tourist attraction, it is common to buy a key ring, or key chain as a souvenir, however the Japanese English word for these trinkets is ‘Key holder’.  The word ‘key holder’ itself is not completely incomprehensible, however the most natural would obviously be ‘key ring’ or ‘key chain’.

3.) Cooler kuuraa

In Japan, the English word ‘air conditioner’ is referred to as ‘cooler’. In the US this word may well be confused with a refrigerator in a shop or store. In the UK, meanwhile, telling hotel staff that the kuuraa is broken would result in polite smiles at best.

4.) Gasoline stand gasoriin sutando

Particularly for those using a rental car, knowing where to be able to refill your gas tank is essential. However in Japan, the term “gasoline stand” is used in place of the terms “gas station”  in the US, or “filling-station” or “petrol station” in the UK, Australia and Singapore. While “gasoline stand” is not entirely incomprehensible, it is likely to require a moment’s thought on the part of the listener.

5.) Free size furii saizu

In Japan, the phrase ‘free size’ is one, which refers to clothing that doesn’t adhere to a specific measurement but is rather designed for anyone regardless of his or her body size. In an English-speaking country, the phrase most frequently used is ‘one size fits all’. In this sense, when asking a question, the most natural form would be ‘Is this one-size-fits-all?’

6.) Baby car bebii kaa

The term ‘baby car’ is also a Japanese English phrase and refers to the English words stroller, pushchair or baby carriage; i.e. the thing you push a “baby” around in that looks sort of like a “car”.

7.) Potato fry poteto furai

In Japan, ‘potato fry’ is a food that is an accompaniment to a hamburger or a snack to be eaten with alcohol, however in English the same phrase is referred to as ‘French fries’ (US) or ‘chips’ (UK).

8.) Morning call mooningu kooru

The phrase ‘morning call’ is one which defines being woken up by the hotel staff at your preferred time. ‘Morning call’ is a phrase that has taken root in Japanese society, nevertheless the phrase used abroad carrying the same meaning and used much more commonly is ‘wake-up call’. Hopefully hotel staff would be able to put two and two together, though and realise that a “call” in the “morning” could mean only one thing!

9.) (Hotel) front furonto

When staying at a hotel, asking “Where is the front?” is another phrase that Japanese people often use. This does, in fact, refer to the front desk or hotel reception.

10.) Guard man gaado man

The security guard who stands in front of a high-class building or bank is referred to as “guard man” in Japanese English.

11.) Claim kurehmu

Making a complaint against someone or something is known in Japanese English simply as a ‘claim’, however among native English speakers the word ‘complaint’ is used. For example, a Japanese person might say that they would like to “make a claim” to the hotel or restaurant manager.

12.) Mug cup magu kappu

Although not completely incomprehensible, the addition of the word “cup” at the end of “mug” seems rather unnatural. Japanese use this word to distinguish between a mug and a small (non-wine) glass or tumbler which, somewhat confusingly, they refer to as a cup, or “koppu”.

13.) Note persocon nooto pasokon

The advances in portable computers in recent years has resulted in a natural increase in travelers bringing their laptops with them abroad. The word for laptop computer in Japanese English is ‘Note persocon’ which is an abbreviation of ‘notebook personal computer’. Of all the Japanese English words we’ve looked at so far, this is perhaps the one that is most strikingly different to its original English counterpart.

14.) Order made oodaa meido

The Japanese English phrase ‘order made’ is one that refers to the English ‘made-to-order’, or ‘custom made’.

15.) Jet coaster jetto koosutaa

This is a term that refers to arguably the most popular attraction at theme parks, the roller coaster. Still, we suppose they do feel like being strapped to a jet…

16.) Take out teiku auto

Depending on the part of the world you’re in, asking for a ‘take out please’ at a restaurant or fast food establishment could be met with some puzzled looks. This is the term that, along with the pre-existing and perfectly decent Japanese phrase 「持ち帰り」 mochikaeri, is used by Japanese people to refer to “to go” (US) or “take away” (UK) food, often failing to convey the same message when used in English-speaking countries.

17.) Coin laundry koin randorii

In Japan the phrase “coin laundry” is used to refer to what is commonly known abroad as “laundromat” or “launderette”.

18.) Game center gehmu sentaa

Another phrase which is quite different to that used among native English speakers is ‘game center’, referring to video arcades. Although not completely incomprehensible using this term abroad could create some confusion.

19.) Consent konsento

This is a weird one. The English word power outlet (US) or plug socket (UK) is known in Japan as a “consent”, making this one of the most incomprehensible wase eigo words out there. If a Japanese speaker asks you where the consent is, they’re not asking for permission to do something…

20.) Decoration cake dekorehshon kehki

Decoration cake is a combination of the word ‘decoration’ and ‘cake’ which in Japan suggests a cake with lots of decoration, the phrase often used abroad is “fancy cake” or simply “really pretty cakes”. But there again, what cake doesn’t look incredible? Well, perhaps except this one.

SourceEigo Kyouzai Lab

ALL ABOUT KANJI

Let’s learn the basic units in KanjiKanji do not express   sounds.They express meaning .Kanji take the form of outlines .The meaning is understood from this form if the outline for” woman”  is found at the entrance to a restroom,it’s a woman’s restroom. Roman letters express sounds.When you see the word ” child” you know what the pronunciation  is , but not what it means. Look at the outline of the Kanji  子 . The top is the head .The arms are spread  out . The bottom is the body .The meaning of the kanji 子 is ” child” because it shows the outline of the child . The word’ child ‘  written in roman letters can be divided into ch–i-ld.Each division  represent a unit  of pronunciation  “Ch’ “i “and  “ld ‘ are found in many words .They express sounds. look at the kanji  学 and  好 .子 appears  in many kanji .now look at he kanji 学 .学 is made up of  ツ、ワ and 子. 子 means “child ‘.

Source: KANJI ISN’T THAT HARD ! Yoshiake Takebe

KANJI IS’NT THAT HARD !

( Source : Yoshiake Takebe)

1. Japanese people’s eyes are horizontal.if kanji had been invented in Japan,”eye” would have become  目 ( note : horizontal ) but look at the picture of a Chinese person’s face .The eyes are became vertical in the kanji . The kanji 目 is vertical .In old Chinese painting the eyes were diagonal.

Japanese Customs, Tradition and Culture

Basic Greetings in Japanese 

Ohayou Gozaimasu – Good morning

Konnichiwa – Good afternoon/ hello

Konbanwa – Good evening

Sayounara – Goodbye

Oyasuminasai – Good night

Arigatou gozaimasu – Thank you very much

Sumimasen- Excuse me  / Im sorry

Ittekimasu – I’ll go and come back

Itterasshai – Please go and come back

Tadaima – Im home

Okaerinasai -Welcome home

Itadakimasu – Thank you for the meal ( Before eating )

Gochisousama deshita -Thank you for the meal ( After eating )

Hajimemashite – How do you do ?

Douzo yoroshiku – Nice to meet you

Moushiwake arimasen . gozaimasen – Im sorry , i have no excuse  ( strong apology )

Omatase itashimashita – Sorry to keep you waiting

Osoku natte , sumimasen – Im  sorry , I m late

Gomen kudasai – is anybody there ?  ( When knocking )

( Source : Genki 1)

(Source : Nippon The land and its People )

What is not done in Japan ?

Kissing in public  : Among Japanese it is considered shameful to kiss in front of other people .

   Embracing : It is considered impolite  in Japan to touch ,hug or embrace  someone .It is unusual for boys and girls to hold hands  unless they are in love.

    Chewing gum in front of someone   : While it is considered permissible to smoke when talking with someone ,it is considered rude , in the same situation to chew gum, or to be the only one person eating something . 

chew the gum

 Looking in someone ‘s kitchen : It is considered impolite in Japan to have a look in the kitchen of a home you are visiting .

looking of sopmeone

Starting civil court proceedings :

Japanese people in their everyday life emphasize relationship based on mutual trust rather than on contractual obligation .Most problem that are civil in nature are solved , therefore  ,by discussion or through the meditation of a third party . Legal proceeding are retorted to only when the relationship between the parties involved has considerably deteriorated  .Thee numbers of lawyers in Japan is only one-thirtieth that of the American Total.

legal proceding

Japanese Gestures 

gestures 2

gestures 3 gestures 4

                           

The Japanese preferences for communication by indirect , nonverbal mean is often in the use of gestures . While Americans and others Westerners tend to gesture to emphasize the meaning of what they are saying , Japanese often employs gestures in place of direct spoken expression . Most Japanese gestures differ considerably those used in Western countries ,other  resemble gestures but carry entirely different meaning .For example ,forming a circle  with the thumb and index  finger is a reference to money ,whereas a clenched fist means tight fisted. The little finger pointed  straight  up is commonly taken to mean a girlfriend or mistress  often with a vulgar connotation ,while a raised thumb—- the western signal for approval —- means boyfriend or husband. When beckoning  to someone ,the arm is extended out and the hand is turned downward  ( palm in ) and fluttered .The right hand wave d quickly in front of the face ,as if fanning a flame , signifies a negative response .The rapid crossing of the index fingers tells of a fight or bad feeling between two person .An angry or jealousy wife( or girlfriend ) is suggested  by bringing the hands to the forehead and pointing the forefingers up and outwards like horns . Japanese point to their noses when indicating  themselves ( as in “ who, me ? “ ) rather than to their hearts. And the right hand stiffly in front of the face with the thumb near the nose is the gesture used to ask indulgence when the crossing the path of another or passing between two persons.

Chopsticks ( Hashi )

All Japanese dishes are eaten with chopstick ( Hashi ) : in the case of soups, the solid ingredients  are eaten with hashi  , and the stock sipped directly  from the soup bowl .Hashi are commonly  made of light  but strong wood  , such as cypress or willow , and then lacquered  ; they are also made bamboo or , increasingly of plastic .It is customary  in the Japanese household  for each person to have a pair of hashi reserved for his or her exclusive use. .Disposable plain-wood chopsticks ( waribashi ) which the dinner splits apart before using ,are common in a restaurant s.Long chopsticks  made of Long bamboo and used for cooking are called  saibashi .Long metals chopsticks with wooden handles are used for deep frying .When not in use during as meal ,hashi are rested upon a  small ceramic  ,wooden,or glass stands called hashioki .

Chopsticks

Chopsticks

Chopsticks

Chopsticks

Ramen

Different Instant Ramen in Japan

Two types of instant Ramen : CupRamen , the most “instant ” noodles – is ready to eat after hot water is added . Other Ramen with separate pockets of soup base ,ready after a few minutes of boiling .

Sekihan

Sekihan

This mixture of glutinous rice and azuki bean is often served on shrine festival days ,birthdays and other auspicious occasions.

sembei

Sembei

These rice crackers one of a popular Japanese snacks food and one enjoyed in many varieties .
– At some traditional sembei shops in Tokyo Asakusa district ,the crackers still carefully hand roasted .
– crackers are flavored with red pepper and soy sauce .
– The basic sembei is a simple rice-flour cracker that is brushed with soy sauce.

ABOUT THE JAPANESE 

( Source : Nippon The Land and Its People )

a) The Japanese Character :

Some common features of the Japanese that have been pointed out by many people .

1) When Japanese people gather together in any numbers , their behavior is influenced by an awareness of the order and rank of each person within the group according to age , social status and other such consideration ,Both this and the fact that the honorific forms of speech in the Japanese language reached such an advanced level of sophistication are because of this emphasis the Japanese place on vertical relationship.

2) Conformity is the norm in Japanese Society.The way a Japanese behaves is influenced by the behavior of others and by his concern for what others will think of him.

3) In contrast with Western people who bare more likely to express their opinions openly in a self-asserting way , Japanese tend to speak and act only after thee consideration has been given to the others person’s feelings and point of view . Furthermore ,there is a habit of not giving a clear-cut yes or no answer , a habit base  on a long tradition  of avoiding unnecessary friction.The fact that Japanese behave in this way and take these attitudes for granted in their dealing with each other can be partly explained by their homogeneity and long period of isolation from the rest of the world..These factors are also behind  the tendency of Japanese towards self- indulgence with increasing familiarity .

Tips for Living in Japan

http://www.nhk.or.jp/lesson/english/tips/10.html

Lesson 1

Yoroshiku onegai shimasu

If you have had any experience of working or meeting Japanese people, you will have noticed that they often bow and say to you Yoroshiku onegai shimasu. The expression Yoroshiku onegai shimasu is not only used in introducing yourself but when you are asking someone a favor.
For example, Yoroshiku onegai shimasu is sometimes found at the end of an e-mail or a letter. You might have wondered what favor the person who wrote it was asking. Well, it may not refer to anything in particular, but saying Yoroshiku onegai shimasu is a general greeting covering the whole content of the e-mail or a letter. You could say this is one of the typical Japanese expressions. And what do you reply if someone says Yoroshiku onegai shimasu to you? Just repeat it—Yoroshiku onegai shimasu!

Lesson 2

Ko-so-a-do kotoba

Ko-so-a-do kotoba consist of words with the initial letters of the demonstrative pronouns kore, sore and are, and the interrogative pronoun dore, which means “which”. Kotoba means “words”. The ko-so-a-do kotoba used to express location are koko meaning “here”, soko meaning “there”, asoko meaning “over there” and doko meaning “where?”
Ko-so-a-do kotoba are very useful because you can use them instead of saying concrete names. But, of course, you have to be sure the person you are talking to knows what you are referring to! There are often misunderstandings between long-married couples. For example, the husband says “Bring me that!” to his wife, meaning his newspaper, but instead his wife hands him his glasses!

Lesson 3

A way of refusing something

The Japanese attach great importance to harmony in human relationships. So we tend to avoid refusing offers or invitations sharply because it might damage our relationships with others.
For example, when you are offered some kind of food you don’t like, you first of all show appreciation to the other person’s offer by saying Arigatô gozaimasu, meaning “Thank you very much.” And then you can refuse the offer using an evasive answer such as Chotto…, meaning “Er…”. This chotto is a very useful expression because you can use it not only for calling someone but also for refusing something.
Euphemistic expressions are often used in business situations. An expression that is frequently used to refuse a business deal with a client is Kentô shitemimasu. Although Kentô shitemimasu basically means “I will consider,” it implies the nuance of “Please don’t expect a good answer.”

Lesson 4

Japanese sense of time

Many visitors to Japan are surprised to find that the trains here usually operate on time. In fact, most Japanese like things to proceed exactly as scheduled. According to the results of a survey carried out by a leading watch-maker, about 50% of people answered “within five minutes” to the question “How long do you allow commuter trains to be late before you start getting irritated?”
When meeting someone, it’s regarded as good manners to arrive five minutes before the scheduled time. You will often hear people comment that they went to a meeting place just on time, only to discover they were the last person to arrive! In the case of business meetings, in particular, you may lose credibility if you arrive late. So if you are likely to be late, it’s polite to telephone and inform the person you’re meeting. Many Japanese get annoyed even if you’re only five minutes late for an appointment!

Lesson 5

Company working hours

The working hours of many Japanese companies are from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Recently, however, the “flexible time” system has been spreading, in which workers have a certain degree of freedom to fix their working hours themselves. The “flex system” is popular because it means workers can avoid the worst of the commuting rush and work according to their life pattern.
On the other hand, it’s also true that many people feel bad about leaving earlier than their colleagues or bosses, even if their workload for the day has been completed. That’s why you shouldn’t forget to show careful consideration to colleagues. If you do leave before them, it’s a good idea to say O-saki ni shitsurei shimasu before you go. It means “I’m very sorry to leave before you!”

Source : Citizen

                                                Grammar Explanation 

Iku and Ikimasu  ( Going and Coming )

When you move to a place where the hearer is ,you say ” I’m coming ” In English .However in the same situation ,Watashiwa kimasu 私は来ます is used in Japanese .Kuru 来る is a movement toward the place ,where the speaker is Iku  行く is a movement in a direction away from the speaker . ( Source : Genki 1 )

                           Beginner in Japanese                      

           (   Minna No Nihongo 1   )                                  

                Lesson 1

When to use wa ( は) and desu( です)in a sentence 。

1.Wa は indicates that the word before it is the topic of the sentence .Select  noun you want to talk to about and add wa  は).

Examples : 1. I am a  Japanese teacher .    Watashi wa  は)Nihongo no sensei desu .          

   I is the subject ( Watashi) that is talked about , or the topic which is the sentence  identified  as nihongo no sensei .

2. Desu  (です) Desu    (です)indicates judgement or assertion , conveys that the speaker is being  polite and respectful towards the listener .

1. I am a  Japanese teacher .

Watashi wa  は)Nihongo no sensei desu . (です) 3. The particle ” Jya /dewa arimasen   じゃありませnん・ではありません。 Jya /dewa arimasen  じゃありません・ではありません is the negative form of desu  (です).It is the form used in daily conversation.

1. Mr. Toshio is not a teacher. Toshio san wa sensei jya/dewa arimasen .  としおさんは せんせいじゃ・ではありません。

4.. Particle KA ( か) The particle ka  ( か)is used  to express the speaker’s doubt,question and uncertainty .A question is formed by adding  KA ( か)to the end of the sentence.The question is rising with raising intonation  .

Example : 1. Is Mr Ishizaki a Chinese ? . Iszhizaki san wa chuugoku jin desu ka ? 石崎さんは中国人 ですか。

… No , he is not .   Iie Chuugoku jin jya arimassen .

。。。いいえ、ちゅうごくじんじゃありません。

5.Particle MO  ( も)

( も)MO  is added after a topic instead of WA ( は)when the statement about the topic is the same  as the previous topic.

1. Mr. Nishimori is a company employee .

にしもりさんはかいしゃいんです。

Mr. Suzuki is also a company employee .

すずきさん も かいしゃいんです。 Expression Notes  Anou あの Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying what you are going to say next .You may be worried about interrupting something someone is currently doing,or sounding rude and impolit for asking personal questions .

For example : Hai / EE   はい・ええ Both Hai and EE means “yes” in response to yes/no questions.Compared to hai,ee is more conventional and relaxed.In more informal ituation , un  うん is used . Hai    はい  is used to respond to a knock  at the door or to the calling of one’s name , meaning ” Here ” as follows ( Ee cannot be replaced in this case .

Teacher :  Toshio san ?                         Mr. Toshio ?

としおさん

Student :  Hai .                                         Here   はい。

Numbers 

Many numbers words have more than one pronunciation :

0 >>    (   ぜろ and  れい ) Zero and rei are both commonly used .

1>> いち 、Ichi but pronounce as いっ IPP in いっぽん Ippon  ( One minute) いっ(iss) いっさい (issai)(One Year Old )。

2.に  NI all the time .When you are reading out each digit separately ,as when you give your phone  number ,it may be pronounce  with a long vowel ,as  にい。

3.さん San all the time .The part that follows it may change shape as in  さんぷん, instead of  さんふん

4.よん Yon is the most basic ,but fourth year student is  よねんせい and four o’clock  is よじ (yoji) . In some combinations that we will later  learn ,it is read as し Shi ( as in  しがつ 、April )The part that follows this number may changes in shape too , as in よんぷん(yonfun)。

5.ご Go all the time .when read out separately ,it may pronounced  with a long vowel  as  ごう Gou 。

6.ろく Roku but pronounced as ろっ In ろっぷん .

7. なな (nana) is the most basic ,but seven  o’clock is  しちじ .(shichiji )

8. はち Hachi but usually pronounced as はっ(hap) In はっぽん(Happon) And はっさい(hassai)。

9. きゅう Kyuu is the most basic ,but nine o’clock is くじ kuji.

10. じゅう(Juu )but pronounced as じゅう (juu) In じゅっぽん(juupon) And じゅうさい(juusai)。

Colors

There are two kinds of words in colors:

English                        いーAdjective                                                     Noun

Black                                  kuroi                                                          Kuro

Red                                    Akai                                                            Aka

Yellow                             Kiiroi                                                         Kiiro

White                              Shiroi                                                          Shiro

Blue                                 Aoi                                                               Ao

Brown                           Chairoi                                                       Chairo

These words become noun without    いーAdjective  .

Example:

Red bag                             Akai kaban  あかいかばん。

I like  red the best      Aka ga ichiban sukidesu . あかがいちばんすきです。

N1 YA N2    や

Nouns are connected in coordinate relation by the particle YA   や  While TO と

enumerates all the items, YA   や shows  a few  representative items ,sometimes など is put after the last noun to explicitly express that there are also  some others thing  of the kind .

                             When to use ” Arimasu and Imasu

あります・います X  ga  arimasu means ” there is /are X ( non living thing ).” The particle  ga  (が )introduces, or presents , the item X. You can use Arimasu when you want to say that there is something  at a certain location .

Example : There’s a McDonald’s over there . Asoko ni Makudonarudo ga arimasu . あそこにマクドナルドがあります。

Note that arimasu is different from other verbs we have seen so far on the following three counts.

One, it call for the particle NI, rather than DE , for the place description.

Two, the place description usually comes at the beginning od the sensentence. Three , the thing description is usually followed by the particle GA , rather than WA .

You can also use ARIMASU  to say that you ” have or own ”  something . I don’t have a TV . Terebi ga arimasen.

We also use ARIMASU  when we want to say that ” an event will take place . There will be an exam on Tuesday . Kayoubi ni shiken ga arimasu .

When you want to present a person or some other sentient being, rather than a thing, you need to use verb IMASU .Thus , There’s an International student over there . Asoko ni ryuugakusei ga imasu .

( Source : Genki 1 ) エリばんの 豊か おの 横坂ね 千賀子 品川

 

Scene : You are introducing yourself to a new acquaintances at school

Let us practice

A : Hajimemashite      .   How do you do ?

Watashi wa Toshio desu. .  I am Toshio

Yoroshiku onegaishimasu    .   Nice to meet you

Note :

Hajimemashite means ” ” i am meetings you for the first time “. It correspond to : How do you do ?”  or ” Glad to meet you in English .

B : Hajimemashite .  How do you do ?

Watashi wa yori desu .    I am yori .

kochira kozo yoroshiku onegaishimasu .     I am please to meet you .

536648_586325761387150_487147804_n

おごる > is mainly used among friends. ごちそうする is a polite alternative for おごる. Use ごちそうするinstead when the person who will treat /treated you to a meal is a superior , such as a teacher or a business associate . ごちそうする refers to ” invite for a meal ” as well as ” pay for a meal .”

れい:
佐藤さんが昼ごはんをごちそうしてくれた。
Mr. Sato treated me to lunch .

週末ともだちをよんでばんごはんをごちそうした。
I invited friends for dinner this weekend .
( Source : Genki 2 pp.80 )

1519342_335767943232070_1160931068_o

koinobori

                                                                                   Koinobori
Traditional symbols of courage and success ,carp streamers are flown on Children ‘s day and are usually arranged in the black-red – blue order shown here.

katsudon

                                                                                    Katsudon 
This pork cutlet-and-rice-dish , one of the most popular of the various domburi-mono ( one-bowl-rice-dishes0, is often served with miso soup and pickles

miso

                                                                                    Miso soup 
Shown served in a lacquered and garnished with Welsh onion, miso soup is one of the basic elements of traditional Japanese meal, along with rice and pickles .

hatsuumode

Hatsumoude はつもうで
or the very first shrine or temple visit of New Year : is central to the new years Observance of most Japanese

card in japan

 New Year’s card 
at the bottom of the address side of this government issued card .( above the card is is a lottery number that maybe enable the the recipient to win . )

lacquerd set

Lacquered set 
An elaborate lacquered set for serving toso とそ , a ceremonial spices sake さけ、which is sipped from the sahllow cus to celebrate the New Year .

new year 2

                                      Shimekazari しめかざり
Constructed around a hanging bundle of sacred Shintou rope ,is a popular new Year decoration for homes and shops .

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Understanding Japanese Structure :

https://8020japanese.com/japanese-sentence-structure/?utm_source=FB&utm_medium=Ads&utm_campaign=sentstruc

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Source : 80/20 Japanese

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